The abilities of these spurge natural enemies to live in the southern United States, where additional rare Euphorbia occur, also should be considered. Through surveys for natural enemies of leafy spurge conducted by personnel of the IIBC laboratory in Delémont, Switzerland, between 1961 and 1990, two rust species and 39 insect species were found that were thought to be specialized on leafy spurges (Gassmann, 1990). Leafy spurge is not a single species but an aggregation of closely related, perhaps hybridized taxa. Biological Control in the Western United States: Accomplishments and Benefits of Regional Research Project W84 (1964-1989). It is a major pest of national parks and nature preserves in the western United States. Biologisches Zentralblatt 106: 429-438. Leafy spurge is an erect, branching, perennial herb 2 to 3½ feet tall, with smooth stems and showy yellow flower bracts. Monograph No. are able to develop on plants of E. esula, Euphorbia virgata Waldstein-Wartemberg and Kitaibel, and E. cyparissias L. in Europe. 188): 51144-51190. Stromme et al. In Eurasia, this species occurs at higher altitudes and in areas with cool, rainy summers (Pemberton, 1995). Report, Team Leafy Spurge Annual Meeting, October 24, 2000, Rapid City, South Dakota, USA. The high protein diet has been reported to result in very high quality mohair in angora goats (Stoneberg, 1989). The native range of A. cyparissiae extends from southern Spain and France through central and eastern Europe to western Russia (Pemberton, 1995). The clearwing moth, Chamaesphecia tenthrediniformis (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was released against leafy spurge in Idaho, Montana, and Oregon during 1975 to 1979. Each crown area produces several upright stems, giving the plant a clumplike appearance. 15a,b), is the only fly species released against leafy spurge in the United States. This flea beetle species is found from northern Italy east and north through the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia (Sommer and Maw, 1982). University of Georgia. Everyone can help to win the battle against alien invasive species. In addition to recent biological control efforts in New Hampshire and New York, biological control programs should be initiated in all other states in the northeast and central United States that have significant infestations of leafy spurge. Thurston County Public Health and Social Services (Washington). 1993. The lists of Colorado's Noxious Weeds are located in the below table. Harris, P. 1984. Alley, H. P. and C. G. Messersmith. Lastly, integrated weed management strategies need to be developed and implemented on a grander scale to be able to achieve consistent and sustainable management of leafy spurge in North America in the future. 159-169. Adult Oberea erythrocephala, or the red-headed leafy spurge stem borers, are characterized by their red heads, black eyes, and slender bodies with antennae that are nearly as long as the body. Economic Effect of Leafy Spurge in the Upper Great Plains: Methods, Models and Results. National Genetic Resources Program. Fern., and E. spatulata Lam. Pemberton, R. W. 1987. In North America, leafy spurge occurs as a complex of forms, species, and hybrids and has been most commonly referred to as Euphorbia esula L. (Euphorbiaceae) (Pemberton, 1985). Michigan Department of Natural Resource; Michigan State University Extension. They are blue-green in colour, but in the late summer they turn yellow or orange-red. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey. Hill.). As of 1997, establishment of the midge from these releases has been documented in Colorado, Montana, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Wyoming (Hansen et al., 1997). Weed Science 36: 726-733. Environmental Entomology 20: 282-287. Chemical characterization of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) by curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-pattern recognition. Additional insects have been screened by personnel at the USDA, ARS Biological Control of Weeds Laboratory, Rome, Italy; the USDA, ARS Biological Control Laboratories in Albany, California, USA; the Montana State University Insect Quarantine Laboratory, Bozeman, Montana, USA (Pemberton, 1995); and more recently the USDA, ARS Laboratory in Sidney, Montana, USA. (1996) reported that leafy spurge foliar cover decreased from 40 to 1.7%, five years after A. nigriscutis was released near Edmonton, Canada. Since 1965, 12 insect species have been released against leafy spurge or cypress spurge in the United States, and 17 species have been released in Canada. Sommer, G. and E. Maw. American Midland Naturalist 119: 431-435. Influence of leafy spurge on forage utilization by cattle. 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