The 100 NTU figure (Figure 3) is missing curves for the experiments run at 0 mg/L and 5 mg/L because the data obtained for those two runs were interrupted by the interference of the 7kPa pressure sensor going in and out of voltage range. The best way to optimize your system is thru sampling and monitoring. Thanks for sharing... @wesley 1. The 100 NTU experiments were the first experiments to be run, so the error was fixed and eliminated. Hi Wesley, Normally, a Mathcad program developed by the previous teams would have been utilized to gather, parse, and extract relevant data recorded through out the experimental runs; however, our team had not been introduced to the software at the time of this report's submission and had to parse and analyze the data with Microsoft Excel. Figures 1-4 display the time series plots of turbidity during the settle state in which flocculated particles are allowed to settle in a quiescent environment inside the modified glass cylinder of the effluent turbidimeter. Infiltration will change the characteristics of our influent. I like to improve the monitoring when on-site, especially for the final TP. USALCO liquid Aluminum Sulfate is ready to use and mixes well in water. The calculation for the length of the tube was done by measuring the outer diameter of the cylinder around which the tube was wrapped (plus adjustments for the thickness of the tube itself) and multiplying that by ¿ to give the circumference and then multiplying the circumference by the number of times the tube wrapped completely around the cylinder. In practice, the aluminum to phosphorus molar ratio to be applied is greater than the stoichiometric ratio. Iron requirement is greater than the aluminum requirement in terms of chemical dosage to remove same amount of phosphorus. Since the experiments were run under identical conditions, the mechanisms creating the flocs are identical from run to run; therefore, the composition of the flocs (their shape and density) should be relatively uniform. To monitor the amount of phosphorus, and the required dosage of coagulant, you will need to sample various locations to take suitable actions. This optimal alum dose should, therefore, change with different influent turbidities. Thetreatment reduced the total solids of the wastewater by 89.6%, and produced a supernatant with a pH of4.15 and an optical density of 0.194 nm. The lowest turbidity reading reached in each of the four turbidity experiments were in the 10 NTU range. Calculate your radiation dose > > Radiation Health Effects. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. You need to calculate the TP % of reduction required to get the amount of alum (or any other metal salt) needed for the expected results. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. The amount of natural alkalinity required to react with the alum added in terms of CaCO 3 3. FEEDING DEVICES; A well engineered feeding device is an integral part of an effective water treatment program. More experiments should be run to obtain better data resolution at the alum doses between 25-55 mg/L. A too low a dose of alum can result in variable effluent P concentrations as well as a noncompliance of discharge limits. Pre-treatment dosing with lime is only required when alum doses greater than 30 mg/L are required. If we maintain both flow rate and flocculator length (hence residence time) constant, we can keep mixing constant. Part of the aluminum cations Al3 + precipitate in parallel with hydroxide ions OH- to form precipitates Aluminum hydroxide Al (OH)3. Anoxic zones are used along with anaerobic zones as part of biological phosphorus removal. The phosphorus discharged from your treatment plant need to meet your discharge requirements. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Geometric Mean Calculator - Fecal Coliform Reporting. How satisfied are you? In order to isolate and temporarily remove alum as a variable, a relationship between alum dose and influent turbidity must be determined. Figure 1: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 50 NTU. The objective of our first experiment was to determine the optimal alum dose for various influent turbidities. We can get average dosage of ferric/ferrous salt requirement based on more information from you on system configuration and relevant concentrations. 1 • Collect Sediment Cores • Determine if alum treatment is necessary. Theoretically, one mole of Al is required to react with one mole of P to precipitate in the form of AlPO4. I asked a colleague about your questions and we agree with Alinea's answer. Given that the flocculator length is fixed, we must select and hold constant a flow rate that is will cause adequate amount of mixing but that will not break up flocs. Also, keep in mind that a higher flow can reduce the detention time and inhibit flocculation and settling. The experiments do not show conclusive evidence of where the optimal alum dose is for the different levels of turbidity. TNTC Calculation . Theoretically to remove 1 mg/L of PO4-P you need • 9.6 mg/L of Alum The experiments proved that the addition of alum into turbid waters prior to flocculation improves particle aggregation, leading to higher settling velocities and cleaner effluent water. It is very important that you input an accurate result; Dosage is the prescribed amount of drug in mg per kg of body weight. When dissolved in water, alum dissociates and the multivalent aluminum ions (Al3+) form various species that have an average positive charge. Maximizing Alum Application Effectiveness. The data sheets will mention the density as well as the percentage of alum (or other) in each product. The optimum aluminum sulfate dosage was 2 g/L. Learn more >> Protective Action Guide (PAG) Q&A, Map Templates. 4 1 60 30 1 1 2 × × = The answer has to have tabs as units since that is the units for the dose on hand. The fact that the curves are so similar in all four figures suggests that the optimal alum doses changes only slightly for this range of turbidity values. The other fractions were arranged so that all of the other units, mgand gr, cancelled out. Future experiments may need to be performed to determine whether the effects of alum can vary with different mixing intensities or other variables. alum used (wet or dry), dosage rate, area treated, equipment rental or purchase, and labor. Dosage calculation formulas. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. 8. 9. While the need to fully understand the mechanism by which alum coagulates particles was not immediately pressing, it was important for our research to determine the most effective alum dose for various levels of turbidity in order to temporarily remove alum dosing as a variable in our later experiments. You need to calculate the TP % of reduction required to get the amount of alum (or any other metal salt) needed for the expected results. *  Alternating between anaerobic and aerobic zones (Biological phosphate removal) can remove more than 20% of the total phosphorus without the use of chemical. Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 or alum): Aluminum sulfate (commonly called alum) is used as a coagulant, causing colloidal particles to clump together and settle out of the water. You control your process thru monitoring your process. How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? A raw water supply is treated with an alum dosage of 25 mg/L. Iron in the form of ferric salt (chloride or sulphate) is the preferred coagulant when added in the absence of oxygen. Estimate how much water should you drink per day with this daily water intake calculator. One of the important contributors to the formation of flocs is the chemical coagulant aluminum sulfate (Alum). This trend occurred across all turbidities (this observation is less obvious in the 100 NTU run, but the data does not necessarily oppose this observation) and is a phenomena that may be of significance in understanding alum effectiveness. However, the purpose of our investigating optimal alum dose is not to give operators in Honduras a alum dosing guide, but to develop a control method in our experiments that will render alum dosing a temporary non-variable. Deficient conditions in your treatment process will inevitably have a repercussion on not only your P removal but on all your parameters. You can usually find this number on the medicament box or on the prescription. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… 6. These aggregated contaminants had the potential to clog up the very narrow feed tubes that led out of the alum stock container. 1. USALCO Aluminum Sulfate (Alum), is a high quality, iron-free, clear solution that meets the specifications of the American Water Works Association Standard B403-16 and complies with the requirements of NSF/ANSI/CAN 60 at a maximum dosage of 150 mg/L. Index Terms—Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 18H 2 O), artificial neural networks, coagulation, flocculation, optimal dosage of coagulant. I. Aluminum Sulfate (liquid) ... dosage calculation. How much pressure generally filled in a chlorine cylinder. Technical Data Sheet Chemical Dose Determination The most important component of a control strategy for chemical phosphorous removal is the calculation of coagulant dosage. Note: Depending on local requirements, solutions of variable acidity or basicity may be produced, as well as lower assay. 7. It’s important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product. Since we do not have the equipment needed to observe and measure the sizes of flocs formed after each experiment, we can only observe the rate at which flocs settle under quiescent conditions and the final settled turbidity. At the beginning working with a MBR can represent a significant challenge: increase in variables, different performance indicators to monitor and control, & unfamiliar equipment… it takes time to adapt. Metric Conversions. Alum was once the most common coagulant used in West Virginia, but today it is being replaced by the more prevalent use of polymers. Calculate the followings: 1. Weight Calculator Metal gets heavy, and whether you want to see how much shipping is likely to be, or if your vehicle (or back) can handle it, it’s good to know what your order weighs. Sometimes alum is seen in its crystalline form, although it is most often sold as a powder. Dosage is usually based on calcs and later fine-tuned through measurements. 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